Last update: December 7, 2010 02:18:54 PM E-mail Print

 

BODY WEIGHT AND GROWTH RATE OF ANGORA KIDS

  

Gretha Snyman 


Grootfontein Agricultural Development Institute, Private Bag X529, Middelburg (EC), 5900

Email: Gretha Snyman

 


INTRODUCTION

Pre- and post-weaning growth rate in Angora goats are more related to survival rate of kids and to young goats reaching an acceptable weight at mating age, than to the marketing of meat. It is generally accepted that the lower limit of body weight at which young Angora ewes can be expected to conceive successfully, is 25 kg. The relatively poor growth rate of Angora kids, compared to other small stock breeds, is well known and many young ewes do not reach this target weight at first mating age. Furthermore, data on early growth rates in South African Angora goats are lacking in the literature, and only recorded body weights at two-tooth age are available. The effect of nutrition on mohair production has been investigated, but very little work has been done on the effect of different feeding strategies early in life on growth rate and subsequent performance of Angora goats.

 

In this paper, growth rate of Angora kids from birth to 16 months of age, under varying management systems, will be evaluated. Body weight of these young ewes at their first mating at 18 months of age, their body weight recorded at the subsequent scanning for pregnancy and their first kidding performance will also be related to pre-weaning treatment.

 

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The data used for this study were collected during a project that involved an investigation into reproductive performance and kid mortality aspects in South African Angora goats. This study was conducted from 2000 to 2004 on 12 South African Angora goat studs, run under different management systems. Apart from reproductive data, various body weights of ewes and kids were recorded. All management practices and treatments groups were also recorded. The major management practices followed in the various studs are summarized in Table 1.

The final data set analysed for this study, contained birth, weaning, 8-, 12- and 16-month body weights of 16644 kids, born from 2000 to 2004 in the 12 different studs. Birth, weaning and 8-month body weights were recorded on both ram and ewe kids, while 12- and 16-month body weights were only recorded for the ewe kids. Growth rates for the periods birth to weaning (ADG: birth to wean), weaning to 8 months (ADG:wean to 8mo), 8 to 12 months (ADG:8mo to 12mo) and 12 to 16 months of age (ADG:12mo to 16mo) were calculated for each kid from the respective body weights.

 

Body weight of 1914 of the young ewes that were taken up in the studs were recorded at their first mating at 18 months of age, as well as when these young ewes were scanned for pregnancy at 21 months of age. The reproductive performance at first kidding, in terms of number of kids at scanning, number of kids born and number of kids weaned was also recorded.

 

Table 1 Management practices followed in the various studs

 

Stud

Management practices during kidding

From kidding to weaning

Weaning to 8 months of age

Ewe kids after 8 months of age

1

Ewes kid in veld, no supplementation

Twin kids on oat pastures

Single kids in veld

Kids in veld – no supplementation (Ewe kids and ram kids run as 1 flock each)

Kids in veld – no supplementation

2

Ewes kid on pastures

Kids on pastures for first few weeks, then moved to veld

Ewe kids on veld without supplementation

Ram kids supplemented

Kids in veld – no supplementation

3

Ewes kid on pastures

Kids on pastures for first few weeks, then moved to veld

Kids in veld – no supplementation (Ewe kids and ram kids run as 1 flock each)

Kids in veld – no supplementation

4

Ewes kid on pastures

Kids on pastures for first few weeks, then moved to veld

Ewe kids on veld without supplementation

Ram kids supplemented

Kids in veld – no supplementation

5

Ewes kid on pastures and in veld

Kids in different rearing groups, twins and kids of young ewes receive supplementation

Ewe kids on veld without supplementation

Ram kids supplemented

Kids in veld – no supplementation

6

Ewes kid in veld and on pastures

Kids on pastures for first few weeks, then moved to veld

Ewe kids on veld without supplementation

Ram kids supplemented

Kids in veld – no supplementation

7

Ewes kid in veld, no supplementation

Kids with ewes in veld (1 flock)

Kids in veld – no supplementation (Ewe kids and ram kids run as 1 flock each)

Kids in veld – no supplementation

8

Ewes kid in veld, no supplementation

Kids with ewes in veld (1 flock)

Kids in veld – no supplementation (Ewe kids and ram kids run as 1 flock each)

Kids in veld – no supplementation

9

Ewes kid on pastures

Kids on pastures for first few weeks, then moved to veld

Ewe kids on veld without supplementation

Ram kids supplemented

Kids in veld – no supplementation

10

Ewes kid on pastures and in veld

Kids with ewes in veld (1 flock)

Ewe kids on veld without supplementation

Ram kids supplemented

Kids in veld – no supplementation

11

Ewes kid on pastures

Kids on pastures for first few weeks, then moved to veld

Ewe kids on veld without supplementation

Ram kids supplemented

Kids in veld – no supplementation

12

Ewes kid on pastures

Kids on pastures till weaning

All kids on pastures

All kids on pastures

 

The effect of pre-weaning rearing group on weaning weight and subsequent body weights of kids in two studs (Stud 1 and Stud 5) where the kids received different treatments before weaning, were obtained from the analysis described above. For this analysis, only body weights for the ewe kids were taken, as ram kids only had recorded weights up to 8 months of age. Body weights at 18 and 21 months of age and first kidding performance data of 215 young ewes, which were part of some of the pre-weaning treatment groups in Studs 1 and 5, were analysed to determine if pre-weaning treatment had any carry-over effect on body weight and kidding performance at 18 months onwards.

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The number of records analysed for each trait, as well as the average and coefficient of variation for each trait, are summarized in Table 2. Birth weight, weaning weight and 8-month body weight of kids born from 2000 to 2004 in the different studs, are summarized in Table 3 for ram and Table 4 for ewe kids respectively. Body weights of the ewe kids from 12 to 16 months of age are presented in Table 5, while body weight of these young ewes at their first mating at 18 months of age, their body weight recorded at the subsequent scanning for pregnancy at 21 months of age and their reproductive performance at first kidding, are presented in Table 6.

 

Table 2 Description of the data set on body weights of kids and first kidding performance of young ewes

Trait

Number of records

Average

CV (%)

Birth weight (kg)

16644

3.2

16.0

Weaning weight (kg)

15510

17.6

20.3

ADG:birth to wean (g/day)

15510

113

24.4

8 month weight (kg)

7721

22.9

16.6

ADG:wean to 8mo (g/day)

7721

40

56.7

12 month weight (kg)

3140

20.7

16.1

ADG:8mo to 12mo (g/day)

3140

9

231.0

16 month weight (kg)

2914

24.6

16.4

ADG:12mo to 16mo (g/day)

2135

30

55.0

Body weight before mating (kg)

1914

26.9

12.5

Body weight at scan (kg)

1914

30.6

12.5

Number of kids scanned

1914

0.78

59.5

Number of kids born

1914

0.73

69.7

Number of kids weaned

1914

0.58

89.1

 

Table 3 Body weight and growth rate (±s.e.) from birth to 8 months of age of ram kids born from 2000 to 2004 in the different studs

Stud

Birth weight (kg)

Weaning weight (kg)

ADG:birth to wean (g/day)

8 month weight (kg)

ADG:wean to 8mo (g/day)

1

2.60±0.04

16.7±0.3

109.9±2.7

23.5±0.6

42.9±3.5

2

3.39±0.04

18.0±0.3

114.7±2.4

32.2±0.6

100.8±3.4

3

3.26±0.04

16.2±0.3

100.8±2.5

22.3±0.6

42.7±3.5

4

3.29±0.04

19.5±0.3

127.5±2.5

30.4±0.6

84.9±3.5

5

3.17±0.04

15.7±0.3

99.8±2.4

26.5±0.6

69.7±3.3

6

3.24±0.04

19.0±0.3

124.7±2.6

32.0±0.7

54.8±4.0

7

3.20±0.05

15.3±0.3

94.6±2.8

19.4±0.6

21.4±3.6

8

3.34±0.04

17.1±0.3

107.7±2.6

23.0±0.6

37.5±3.4

9

2.95±0.04

19.3±0.3

130.8±2.4

 

 

10

3.35±0.19

17.1±0.5

110.8±3.9

23.9±0.7

59.3±4.3

11

3.18±0.04

15.6±0.3

96.8±2.5

30.0±0.6

95.0±3.5

12

3.18±0.04

22.7±0.3

154.4±2.6

32.3±0.6

67.5±3.4

Average

3.28±0.04

17.7±0.3

114.4±2.3

26.8±0.5

61.5±3.3

 

Table 4 Body weight and growth rate (±s.e.) from birth to 8 months of age of ewe kids born from 2000 to 2004 in the different studs

Stud

Birth weight (kg)

Weaning weight (kg)

ADG:birth to wean (g/day)

8 month weight (kg)

ADG:wean to 8mo (g/day)

1

2.55±0.04

14.5±0.3

92.8±2.6

19.2±0.6

30.9±3.5

2

3.05±0.04

15.6±0.3

98.1±2.4

17.2±0.6

14.2±3.3

3

2.90±0.04

14.2±0.3

87.5±2.5

16.5±0.6

16.5±3.5

4

2.91±0.04

16.5±0.3

107.2±2.6

18.4±0.6

14.9±3.5

5

2.89±0.04

13.7±0.3

87.0±2.4

17.6±0.6

20.4±3.3

6

2.99±0.04

15.9±0.3

106.7±2.6

19.1±0.7

44.3±4.0

7

2.95±0.05

13.3±0.3

80.7±2.8

17.7±0.6

24.0±3.6

8

3.13±0.04

14.8±0.3

91.5±2.6

20.7±0.6

38.0±3.4

9

2.71±0.04

16.6±0.3

109.8±2.3

 

 

10

3.13±0.19

15.1±0.5

99.3±4.0

18.5±0.7

36.2±4.3

11

2.91±0.04

14.1±0.3

87.1±2.5

18.3±0.6

27.8±3.4

12

2.89±0.04

18.8±0.3

125.5±2.6

23.9±0.6

35.5±3.4

Average

2.92±0.04

15.3±0.3

97.8±2.3

18.8±0.5

27.5±3.2

 

Table 5 Body weight and growth rate (±s.e.) from 12 to 16 months of age of ewe kids born from 2000 to 2004 in the different studs

Stud

12 month weight (kg)

ADG:8mo to 12mo (g/day)

16 month weight (kg)

ADG:12mo to 16mo (g/day)

1

22.1±0.4

29.6±2.3

22.6±0.7

20.9±2.6

2

16.5±0.3

-6.6±2.1

18.2±0.7

20.5±2.5

3

16.9±0.4

3.9±2.7

19.2±0.8

28.7±2.8

4

19.9±0.4

16.9±2.4

22.1±0.8

38.0±3.1

5

18.8±0.3

15.4±2.0

21.0±0.7

21.9±2.4

6

 

 

25.5±0.7

 

7

14.3±0.4

-26.1±2.6

17.0±0.8

26.0±2.6

8

17.8±0.4

-16.5±2.3

22.5±0.7

31.5±2.5

10

18.0±0.5

-41.3±3.5

21.8±0.9

38.8±3.4

11

19.9±0.4

7.5±2.5

29.3±0.8

 

12

27.4±0.3

32.0±2.2

29.9±0.7

30.8±2.6

Average

20.7±0.3

9±2.4

24.6±0.7

30±2.7

 

Table 6 Body weight (±s.e.) from 18 to 21 months of age and reproductive performance of young ewes born from 2000 to 2004 in the different studs

Stud

18 month weight (kg)

21 month weight (kg)

Number of kids scanned

Number of kids born

Number of kids weaned

1

27.1±0.4

32.6±0.4

0.83±0.04

0.76±0.05

0.67±0.05

2

24.9±0.2

28.3±0.2

0.75±0.02

0.73±0.03

0.58±0.03

3

24.0±0.2

26.3±0.3

0.67±0.03

0.53±0.04

0.38±0.04

4

27.9±0.3

29.4±0.4

0.80±0.05

0.46±0.05

0.44±0.05

5

25.8±0.2

29.0±0.3

0.68±0.03

0.72±0.04

0.51±0.04

6

28.7±0.3

34.3±0.4

0.87±0.04

0.85±0.05

0.77±0.05

7

20.9±0.3

24.8±0.3

0.41±0.04

0.20±0.04

0.15±0.05

8

27.2±0.3

30.9±0.3

0.86±0.03

0.71±0.04

0.53±0.04

11

26.9±0.2

33.1±0.3

0.91±0.03

0.89±0.03

0.71±0.03

12

35.0±0.2

37.1±0.2

0.99±0.03

1.00±0.03

0.84±0.03

Average

26.9±0.4

30.6±0.4

0.79±0.04

0.73±0.04

0.58±0.04

1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,11,12   Specific trait differed significantly (P<0.01) from those studs indicated in the superscripts

 

Variable growth rates of kids were recorded in the different studs, which can largely be ascribed to different environments and supplementary feeding practices.  The average birth weight was 3.20 kg and ranged from 2.55 kg to 3.39 kg among the studs. The average weaning weight of kids was 17.6 kg and varied between 13.7 kg and 22.7 kg for the various studs. Average 8-month body weight of kids was 22.9 kg and ranged from 16.5 kg to 32.3 kg. Respective weights for 12-month body weight of ewe kids were 20.7 kg average, with a range between 14.3 kg and 27.4 kg. Average 16-month weight of ewe kids was 24.6 kg, ranging from 17.0 kg to 29.9 kg among studs. Average daily gain was 113 g/day from birth to weaning, 40 g/day from weaning till 8 months of age, 9 g/day from 8 to 12 months of age and 30 g/day from 12 to 16 months of age. Respective weights for 18-month body weight of ewe kids were 26.9 kg average, with a range between 20.9 kg and 35.0 kg. Average 21-month weight of ewe kids was 30.6 kg, ranging from 24.8 kg to 37.1 kg among studs.

 

Growth curves of ram kids from birth to 8 months of age and of ewe kids from birth till 16 months of age are depicted in Figure 1. From these curves it is clear that pre-weaning growth performance of both Angora ram and ewe kids are satisfactory. The same, however, does not apply for post-weaning growth rate. Growth curves of ram and ewe kids, where kids received supplementary feeding after weaning and for studs where kids received no supplementary feeding after weaning, are illustrated in Figures 2 and 3 respectively. In those studs (Studs 2, 4, 5, 11, 12) where all the ram kids received supplementary feeding after weaning, a relatively higher growth rate from weaning till 8 months of age was evident (Table 3, 84 g/day on average). In those studs (Studs 1, 3, 7, 8) where the ram kids did not receive any supplementary feeding after weaning, a much lower post-weaning growth rate was recorded (36 g/day on average).

 

Ewe kids, with the exception of Stud 12, usually receive no supplementary feeding after weaning, as is evident from Figure 1, where the ewe kids showed little increase in body weight from weaning to 8 months of age. The growth rate from weaning to 8 months of age of ewe kids which received supplementation after weaning were 36 g/day (Stud 12), compared to 24 g/day on average for studs where ewe kids received no supplementation after weaning.

 

Variable growth rates of ewe kids from 8 to 12 months of age were observed among the different flocks (Table 5). In some flocks, the kids showed an increase in body weight, while other remained constant or some even lost weight after 8 months of age. This is also evident from Figure 3, where ewe kids in Stud 12 which were run on pastures, maintained a steady growth rate of ± 32 g/day from 8 to 12 and from 12 to 16 months of age. In comparison, the ewe kids run under veld conditions without any supplementation, lost on average 2 g/day between 8 and 12 months of age. From 12 to 16 months of age, the latter ewe kids gained 28 g/day. This phenomenon, where especially ewe kids did not grow well after weaning, needs to be investigated further, as it directly influences the reproductive ability of the young ewes. This is clearly illustrated in Table 6 by the 15 % kids weaned by the young ewes in Stud 7, which had the lowest body weight at 18 months of age (20.9±0.3), compared to the ewes in Stud 12, which weaned 84 % kids and had the highest 18-month body weight (35.0±0.2 kg). Furthermore, ewe kids run under veld conditions without supplementation, weaned on average 53% kids, compared to the kids in Stud 12, which weaned 84% kids. The importance of a sustained level of adequate nutrition of ewe kids after weaning is emphasized through these results.

Figure 1. Growth curves of ram kids from birth to 8 months of age and of ewe kids from birth to 16 months of age

Figure 2. Growth curves of ram kids in studs where ram kids received supplementary feeding after weaning and in studs where ram kids received no supplementation

Figure 3. Growth curves of ewe kids in studs where ewe kids received supplementary feeding after weaning and in studs where ewe kids received no supplementation

 

The effect of pre-weaning rearing group on weaning weight and subsequent body weights of ewe kids born from 2000 to 2004 in Stud 1 and Stud 5 where kids received different treatments before weaning, are presented in Table 7. The effect of different pre-weaning treatments (supplementation) did not seem to be carried over to body weights at 12 and 16 months of age in most cases. The validity of this should, however, be investigated further, as no suitable control groups were present. For example, those groups that did receive supplementation could have performed much worse up to 16 months of age if they did not receive any pre-weaning supplementation.

 

Body weight at 18 and 21 months of age and reproductive performance at first kidding of those young ewes that were taken up in the stud, are summarized in Table 8 for some of the pre-weaning treatment groups of the two studs presented in Table 7. Here it is also evident that the effect of pre-weaning treatment was not carried over to first reproductive performance of the young ewe. These findings are in contrast with studies reported for sheep, where under-nutrition during the pre-weaning growth phase, had a detrimental effect on first, as well as lifetime reproductive performance of ewes. The findings of this study should, however, be investigated further, as the ewe numbers in the treatment groups were low.

 

Table 7 Effect of pre-weaning rearing group on body weight (±s.e.) of kids born from 2000 to 2004 in two studs

Stud*Year

*Group

Weaning weight (kg)

8 month weight (kg)

12 month weight (kg)

16 month weight (kg)

Description of pre-weaning rearing group

1*2000*1

14.8±0.4 2

17.4±0.7

23.4±0.6

28.8±0.9

Single kids; no suppl. feeding

1*2000*2

16.7±0.5 1

18.6±0.8

24.0±0.6

28.8±0.9

Twin kids; on oats pastures

1*2001*1

17.7±0.4 2

18.9±0.7 2

26.0±0.6 2

26.3±0.9

Single kids; no suppl. feeding

1*2001*2

20.6±0.7 1

21.8±1.1 1

28.1±1.0 1

28.9±1.6

Twin kids; on oats pastures

1*2002*1

16.1±0.4

18.5±0.7

20.9±0.6

19.1±0.9

Single kids; no suppl. feeding

1*2002*2

16.1±0.5

19.3±0.9

21.4±0.8

19.6±1.0

Twin kids; on oats pastures

1*2003*1

14.0±0.4 2

18.0±0.7 2

19.4±0.6

17.6±0.9

Single kids; no suppl. feeding

1*2003*2

15.8±0.5 1

20.0±0.9 1

20.4±0.8

19.1±1.0

Twin kids; on oats pastures

1*2004*1

13.4±0.4 2

20.5±0.7 2

23.3±0.6

33.8±1.2

Single kids; no suppl. feeding

1*2004*2

19.0±0.7 1

23.2±1.2 1

23.4±1.0

35.6±1.6

Twin kids; on oats pastures

5*2000*1

19.8±0.8 2,3,4,5,6

19.0±1.2

21.6±0.9

26.0±1.2

Single kids

5*2000*2

15.9±0.5 1,6,9

18.0±0.8

22.6±0.7

26.9±1.0

Twin kids, supplemented

5*2000*3

15.4±0.8 1,6,9

17.8±1.3

21.2±0.9

25.9±1.4

Not specified

5*2000*4

16.8±0.9 1

19.9±1.7

21.6±1.2

26.0±1.5

Not specified

5*2000*5

16.2±0.5 1,6

17.6±0.9

21.6±0.7

25.0±1.0

Young ewes, supplemented

5*2000*6

17.4±0.4 1,2,5

18.0±0.7

21.8±0.5

26.4±0.8

Not specified

5*2000*9

18.0±0.9 2,3

19.1±1.4

21.6±1.3

26.0±1.5

Orphaned kids

5*2001*1

15.6±0.3 5,9

18.6±0.6

19.0±0.5

21.4±0.8

Single kids

5*2001*2

15.2±0.4

17.9±0.8

17.8±0.6

20.7±0.9

Twin kids, supplemented

5*2001*5

14.3±0.5 1

18.4±0.8

19.2±0.7

22.1±1.0

Young ewes, supplemented

5*2001*9

13.6±1.0 1

17.2±1.5

17.4±1.5

18.5±1.8

Orphaned kids

5*2002*1

16.1±0.3 2

19.2±0.6

19.5±0.5

21.7±0.8

Single kids

5*2002*2

17.3±0.4 1

19.4±0.7

19.9±0.6

21.5±0.9

Twin kids, supplemented

5*2002*3

16.5±0.5

20.2±1.0

20.4±0.9

23.5±1.2

Young ewes, supplemented

5*2002*9

18.0±1.2

19.5±1.9

16.7±1.5

22.8±2.2

Orphaned kids

5*2003*1

12.1±0.4 2,3

15.9±0.6

15.9±0.5

18.8±0.8

Single kids

5*2003*2

13.2±0.4 1

15.3±0.7 3

15.5±0.6

18.5±0.9

Twin kids, supplemented

5*2003*3

13.7±0.4 1

16.8±0.8 2

16.2±0.7

19.1±0.9

Young ewes, supplemented

5*2003*4

12.9±1.1

16.4±2.1

17.7±1.7

18.6±1.9

Smaller kids & Orphaned kids

5*2004*1

11.1±0.4 3,4

15.5±0.6

20.6±0.5

21.9±1.1 4

Single kids

5*2004*2

11.2±0.4 3,4

15.6±0.8

20.5±0.7

22.3±1.1 4

Twin kids, supplemented

5*2004*3

12.5±0.6 1,2,4

17.1±1.2 4

21.7±1.0

20.7±2.2

Young ewes, supplemented

5*2004*4

9.4±0.5 1,2,3

14.0±1.0 3

19.3±0.9

18.3±1.3 1,2

Smaller kids, well fed

1,2,3,4,5,6,9 Body weight of a specific group differed significantly (P<0.01) from those groups indicated in the superscripts. Differences (P<0.05) among rearing groups are indicated within stud*year*group subgroups (i.e. within a specific kidding season)

 

Table 8 Effect of pre-weaning rearing group on body weight and reproductive performance (±s.e.)  of young ewes in two studs

Stud*Year

*Group

Number of ewes

18 month weight (kg)

21 month weight (kg)

Number of kids scanned

Number of kids born

Number of kids weaned

1*2000*1

15

31.1±0.7

33.6±0.9

0.93±0.12

1.00±0.13

0.73±0.13

1*2000*2

16

30.8±0.7

33.1±0.9

1.00±0.12

0.94±0.12

0.75±0.13

1*2001*1

29

27.9±0.5

34.2±0.7

0.90±0.09

0.76±0.09

0.72±0.10

1*2001*2

4

27.8±1.4

32.4±1.8

0.75±0.24

0.50±0.25

0.25±0.27

1*2002*1

15

23.7±0.7

30.7±0.9

0.73±0.12 2

0.53±0.13

0.47±0.14

1*2002*2

10

22.7±0.8

29.6±1.1

0.20±0.15 1

0.30±0.16

0.30±0.17

5*2001*1

32

27.2±0.5

31.0±0.6

0.75±0.08

0.88±0.09

0.50±0.09

5*2001*2

9

25.3±0.9

30.0±1.2

0.55±0.16

0.88±0.17

0.77±0.18

5*2001*5

11

26.0±0.8

31.1±1.1

0.82±0.14

0.91±0.15

0.64±0.16

5*2002*1

49

26.4±0.4

29.2±0.5

0.53±0.07

0.47±0.07

0.35±0.08

5*2002*2

18

25.9±0.7

29.0±0.8

0.67±0.11

0.50±0.12

0.44±0.13

5*2002*3

7

26.6±1.1

29.6±1.3

0.71±0.18

0.57±0.19

0.29±0.20

1,2 Trait value of a specific group differed significantly (P<0.01) from those groups indicated in the superscripts. Differences (P<0.05) among rearing groups are indicated within stud*year*group subgroups (i.e. within a specific kidding season)

 

CONCLUSIONS

It is evident that pre-weaning growth rate of ram and ewe kids is satisfactory, but post-weaning growth rate of those kids (ram and ewe) that did not receive supplementary feeding after weaning, is unacceptable. The effect of different pre-weaning treatments did not seem to be carried over to body weights at later ages, nor did it affect first kidding performance. The validity of this should, however, be investigated further. The poor growth rate of especially ewe kids after weaning till 12 months of age is a serious problem that should be addressed, as it directly influences the reproductive ability of the young ewes, which was again evident from the poor reproductive performance of the young ewes in some of the studs.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The author wishes to convey her sincere appreciation to all people who participated in the project and to Mohair South Africa for funding the project.