Last update: January 17, 2011 03:45:44 PM E-mail Print

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT FAT SOURCES ON THE QUALITY OF

 GAME "DROë WORS"

 

J H HOON, P R  KING & M J  HERSELMAN

 

Grootfontein Agricultural Development Institute, Middelburg Eastern Cape, 5900

 


INTRODUCTION

It is common practice to include fat from the Blackhead Persian when making game droë wors. Although it is alleged that this improves the quality of the droë wors, it has not been proven scientifically. Several indigenous fat-tailed sheep breeds, of which some are owned by subsistence farmers, are available and produce large quantities of fat. There is, however, a large consumer resistance towards these fat-tailed breeds, which has a negative effect on their conservation, utilization and promotion. If the fat from these breeds could be utilized, it would increase the income from these breeds. The objective of this study was to determine whether the quality of game droë wors can be improved by the inclusion of fat from indigenous fat-tailed sheep breeds.

 

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

Kudu meat was used as a source of game meat and fat from six different sources were included at a rate of 400g of fat for every 900g of meat to prepare different brands of droë wors..The following six fats were used: 1) Vegetable fat (Holsum; V), 2) Namaqua Afrikaner fat (NA), 3) Dorper fat (D), 4) Ronderib Afrikaner fat (RA), 5) Blackhead Persian fat (BP) and 6) Beef fat (B). All other preparation procedures and ingredients were the same. The Meat Industry Centre of the A.R.C. at Irene conducted a sensory analysis on the different brands of droë wors to determine consumer acceptance and sensory attributes. A consumer panel (n = 100; 50 male & 50 female) evaluated the acceptability of the six brands of droë wors on a hedonic rating scale (1 = dislike extremely to 8 = like extremely). A trained sensory panel (n = 10) evaluated sensory attributes such as ease of bite, chewability and fatty mouthfeel (1 = none to 8 = extremely) of the droë wors. A consumer panel from Grootfontein A.D.I. (n=80) also evaluated the acceptability of the droë wors. For statistical validity of the test results, three replications of the sensory profile test procedure were conducted over a three day period (one session/day).

 

RESULTS

The hedonic ratings for the consumer preference test conducted at the Meat Industry Centre (Irene) and at Grootfontein A.D.I. are illustrated in Table 1. According to these results both consumer panels favoured the droë wors with Dorper fat, with the lowest rating for droë wors with vegetable fat. Both panels also rated the droë wors with Namaqua Afrikaner and Ronderib Afrikaner fat higher than the droë wors with Persian fat. The only major difference in the ratings of the two consumer panels was that the Grootfontein panel gave a higher rating for the droë wors with the Persian fat and a lower rating for the droë wors with the cattle fat, compared to the Irene panel. This can probably be attributed to the fact that the urban panel were on average less tolerant towards the more fatty droë wors with the Persian fat.

 

Table 1. Hedonic ratings for the consumer preference test on the different brands of kudu droë wors

CONSUMER PREFERENCE HEDONIC RATING SCALE

 

CONSUMER

PANEL

 

SAMPLES

V

NA

D

RA

BP

B

8=Like extremely

7=Like very much

6=Like moderately

5=Like slightly

4=Dislike slightly

3=Dislike moderately

2=Dislike very much

1=Dislike extremely

 

 

 

IRENE

 

 

 4.4a

5.6b

6.0c

 5.2b

 4.7a

5.5b

 

 

GROOTFONTEIN

 

 

4.6a

 5.7c

6.2d

5.5bc

5.1b

4.8ab

Mean rating in a row with different subscripts differed significantly (P<0.05)

The results of the sensory profile of the different brands of droë wors as evaluated by the trained sensory panel, are presented in Table 2.

 

Table 2.  Sensory attributes for different brands of kudu droë wors

SENSORY ATTRIBUTES                     

P

SAMPLES

 

 

V

NA

D

RA

BP

B

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

were 4.4, 5.6, 6.0, 5.2, 4.7 and 5.5 for V, NA, D, RA, BP and B respectively. Mean scores of the sensory panel were 5.1, 4.5, 4.7, 5.4, 5.2 and 3.6 for ease of bite, 4.9, 4.4, 4.4, 5.4, 5.3 and 3.7 for chewability, 3.3, 4.7, 4.9, 3.9, 4.0 and 4.5 for spiciness and 5.2, 3.2, 2.8, 3.0, 3.5, and 2.2 for fatty mouthfeel, respectively.

 

CONCLUSION

Although both consumer panels favoured the kudu droë wors with Dorper fat, Dorper sheep as well as cattle, do not have excessive localised fat depots which therefore limits the use of these fats in practice. Contrary to expectation, the consumer panel rated the inclusion of Persian fat below all other sheep fats. It is, however, important to emphasize that these results will only be applicable for droë wors made according to these specific recipe. Better results with the inclusion of Blackhead Persian fat, with is a more oily fat, in droë wors will probably be achieved at a lower inclusion level..

It can, however, be concluded that fat from the indigenous fat-tailed breeds like the Namaqua and Ronderib Afrikaner, can be utilised successfully to improve the quality of game droë wors.