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The Afrino is a white woolled mutton breed developed for slaughter lamb and wool production under extensive conditions.
HISTORY OF THE AFRINO
During the late 1960's, a request was made to the Department of Agriculture by the wool industry, via the South African Agricultural Union, to develop a white woolled breed for the extensive sheep grazing areas.
This breed :
* had to be free of kemp and coloured fibres;
* had to be hardy and well adapted to the environment of the extensive grazing areas;
* had to produce a good slaughter lamb at an early age;
* had to have a good reproductive ability.
Consequently, a breeding project was initiated at the Carnarvon Experimental Station in the North-western Karoo in 1969, whereby it was attempted to develop a white woolled mutton sheep, which combined the quality wool of the Merino with the reproductive performance and mutton producing abilities of the mutton breeds.
In 1976 it was evident that the cross consisting of 25% Merino, 25% Ronderib Afrikaner and 50% SA Mutton Merino best fulfilled the requirements set for the new breed. It was decided to retain only this cross for further upgrading and development of the breed that is today known as the Afrino. On 5 February 1980, the Afrino Sheep Breeders' Society was established at a meeting on the Carnarvon Experimental Station and breed standards for this new white woolled mutton breed were drawn up.
Aim of the breeding programme
Increase efficiency of both slaughter lamb and wool production.
Breeders are obliged to ensure that genetically superior and environmentally well-adapted animals are continuously available to the industry.
HARDINESS AND ADAPTABILITY
In all breeds which have to produce and reproduce under adverse or sub-optimum environments, hardiness and adaptability are of paramount importance.
Why is the Afrino hardy and adaptable ?
* Wool production is only 3 - 4 % of its body weight
* Selection of breeding sires and dams takes place under the same conditions than those in which their offspring have to produce and reproduce.
PRODUCTION AND REPRODUCTION
Quality and Quantity
In Afrino sheep 80 % of income is generated through meat production and 20 % through wool production. The main selection objective is therefore to increase lifetime weight of lamb produced per ewe.
In the selection programme, emphasis is placed not only on the quantity of lambs produced, but also on their quality. Therefore, lifetime total weight of lamb produced per ewe is the main selection objective.
Afrino ewes have outstanding mothering abilities and even in flocks where 500 - 600 ewes are lambing, bottle-fed lambs will rarely be found. Lambing difficulties are extremely rare.
The breed is known for its high quality meat with an even fat distribution over the carcass. Lambs do not accumulate fat at an early age and can therefore be marketed at a later stage and a higher body weight. Average marketing age is 7 - 8 months under extensive conditions. Under feedlot or favourable conditions, lambs reach marketing weight as early as three months of age.
The Afrino produces Merino type wool, with a fibre diameter ranging from 19 to 22 micron. During selection, much emphasis is placed on wool quality (fibre diameter, crimp definition, clean yield), while care is taken not to decrease the amount of wool produced.
The Afrino Breeder’s Society is working in close co-operation with animal breeding scientists and selection programmes are based on scientific results.
Several research projects on Afrino sheep are being done or have been completed by the Department of Agriculture. The Afrino flock at the Carnarvon Experimental Station consists of 200 breeding ewes and is used primarily for the investigation of suitable selection criteria for Afrino sheep under extensive conditions.
Research results obtained in this Afrino flock, run under similar conditions as in which the majority of Afrino’s have to produce and reproduce commercially, are applied in practice. For example, the Afrino is the first South African sheep breed in which the separation of ram and ewe selection objectives had been investigated and applied. Rams are selected on growth and fleece traits and ewes on reproductive traits, which incorporates fertility and mothering ability.
Contact Dr Gretha Snyman (E-mail : Gretha Snyman) for information on breeding programmes for Afrino sheep.
Scientific production and reproduction norms
Average production of Afrino ram and ewe lambs under extensive conditions in the Carnarvon Afrino flock (1975 - 1994)
Trait Rams Ewes
Birth weight (kg) 5.0 4.7
100-day weaning weight (kg) 30.8 28.4
8-month body weight (kg) 41.4 37.1
12-month body weight (kg) 56.7 47.9
18-month body weight (kg) 60.0 48.3
16-month clean fleece weight (kg) 2.05 1.97
16-month fibre diameter (µ) 21.1 21.6
Average daily gain from birth to 100 days (g/day) 216 202
Average performance of reproducing Afrino ewes under extensive conditions in the Carnarvon Afrino flock (1985 - 1996)
Body weight 60.0 kg
Raw fleece weight 2.90 kg
Clean fleece weight 1.80 kg
Fibre diameter 21.8 µ
Clean yield percentage 62.0 %
Staple length 76.6 cm
Lambs born/ewe mated 142 %
Lambs born/ewe lambing 152 %
% Stillborn lambs 3.4 %
Lamb survival rate 94 %
Lambs weaned/ewe mated 137 %
Milk production 4 weeks post partum 2.9 litre/day (1995)
Milk production 8 weeks post partum 2.0 litre/day (1995)
Total weight of lamb weaned/ewe/year 40.7 kg
Average growth and slaughter traits for Afrino lambs at Carnarvon (1986 - 1991)
Slaughter weight 42.1 kg
Average daily gain (birth to slaughter) 184 g/day
Age at slaughter 223 days
Carcass weight 19.8 kg
Dressing percentage 47.1 %
Genetic improvement in the Carnarvon Afrino flock
By utilising performance testing information, it was possible to genetically increase body weight and lifetime total weight of lamb weaned, while simultaneously decrease fibre diameter in the Carnarvon Afrino flock.
Genetic trends in fibre diameter, weaning weight and lifetime total weight of lamb weaned in the Carnarvon Afrino flock
Please contact us at the society for further information at :
AFRINO BREEDERS’ SOCIETY
Tel. +27 51772-142
Fax. +27 51772-209
See The 1990 AFRINO MANUAL (Vol IV) for interesting articles on production and reproduction standards, cross-breeding experiments, etc.
SNYMAN, M.A., OLIVIER, J.J., CLOETE, J.A.N. & KING, B.R., 1993. Produksienorme vir Afrinoskape in twee omgewings. Karoo Agric 5(1) : 25-28